Anatoli V. Melechko

Electrical and micro-structural characterization of molybdenum tungsten electrodes using a combinatorial thin film sputtering technique



The following article appeared in J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054906 (2005)  and may be found at (URL/link for published article abstract).

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Jun, S.-I., P.D. Rack, T.E. McKnight, A.V. Melechko, and M.L. Simpson, .
J. of Appl. Phys, 97(5), Mar. 1, 2005, 054906-01.

A combinatorial rf magnetron sputter deposition technique was employed to investigate the electrical characteristics and microstructural properties of molybdenum tungsten (MoW) high temperature electrodes as a function of the binary composition. In addition to the composition, the effect of substrate bias and temperature was investigated. The electrical resistivity of MoW samples deposited at room temperature with zero bias followed the typical Nordheim's rule as a function of composition. The resistivity increases with tungsten fraction and is a maximum around 0.5 atomic fraction of tungsten. A metastable beta-W phase was identified and the relative amount of the beta-W phase scales with the resistivity. Samples deposited at higher temperature (250  °C) also followed Nordheim's rule as a function of composition, however, it did not contain the metastable beta-W phase and consequently had a lower resistivity. The resistivity of samples deposited with substrate bias is uniformly lower and obeyed the rule of mixtures as a function of composition. The molybdenum-rich compositions had a lower resistivity, contrary to expectations based on bulk resistivity values, and is attributed to high electron-dislocation scattering cross sections in tungsten versus molybdenum. The metastable beta-W phase was not observed in the biased films even when deposited at room temperature. High resolution scanning electron microscopy revealed a more dense structure for the biased films, which is correlated to the significantly lower film resistivity. ©2005 American Institute of Physics

 

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